B.D. Cullity et al., Prentice Hall, 2001
Review: The purpose of this book is to provide information for the reader who has no previous knowledge of x-ray diffraction theory and is intended for students, not advanced researchers. It is the standard undergraduate text used at many universities. It should be useful for engineers, metallurgists, chemists, physicists, etc., namely, all who use x-ray diffraction as an analysis tool. The book is divided into three main parts: fundamentals, experimental methods, and applications. It also includes a chapter on the measurement of residual stress, as well as many useful tables and appendices. Highly recommended for the beginner!
B.E. Warren, Addison Wesley, 1969
Review: The material presented in this book is an outgrowth of a series of lectures given to graduate students in physics and metallurgy at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The emphasis is on a rigorous development of basic diffraction theory. The treatment is carried far enough to relate to experimentally observable quantities. Most of the book is devoted to the application of x-ray diffraction methods to non-structural problems such as temperature vibration effects, order-disorder, crystal imperfections, the structure of amorphous materials, and the diffraction of perfect crystals. Experimental apparatus and procedures, low-angle scattering, stress analysis, and texture have been omitted. A robust theoretical reference.
H.P. Klug and L.E. Alexander, Wiley-Interscience, 1974
Review: This book features both theoretical information and practical guidelines pertaining to crystallography and crystal x-ray diffraction. The authors' desire was to err on the side of too much detail in presenting basic techniques, procedures, and applications; thus, simple steps in mathematical derivations are always included. The book assumes no special knowledge of crystallography and x-rays on the part of the reader. Simple as well as more advanced examples are used to illustrate concepts and procedures. A particularly desirable reference.
J. Als-Nielsen and D. McMorrow, John Wiley & Sons, 2001
R. Jenkins and R.L. Snyder, Wiley-Interscience, 1996
A. Guinier, Dover, 1994
(International Series on Materials Science and Technology, volume 35)
C. Barrett and T.B. Massalski, Pergamon Press, 1980
Review: The book presents the methods most used in determining structures and defects in crystalline and non-crystalline materials, introduces the standard nomenclature used, and summarizes the nature and theories describing the most important structures. Transformations from one crystal structure to another are also treated. It is intended to be used as a convenient reference volume to serve metallurgists, materials scientists, chemists, and physicists at both the graduate and undergraduate levels. Included are the fundamentals of crystal lattices and symmetry, information on the reciprocal lattice and diffraction, experimental methods, and some results of research. A very useful reference.
(International Series of Monographs on Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy)
W.B. Pearson, Franklin Book Co., 1964
I.C. Noyan and J.B. Cohen, Springer-Verlag, 1987
Review: This book is intended to give the reader a firm foundation in the theory of residual stress measurement with diffraction, as well as a comprehensive understanding of the experimental concepts involved in carrying out such a measurement. It is written for engineers, scientists, and students in a discipline that requires experimental non-destructive stress analysis and covers elasticity/plasticity, the separation of macro and micro residual stress, and experimental measurement techniques and errors. A must-have for the diffraction experimentalist!
V. Hauk, H. Behnken, Ch. Genzel, W. Pfeiffer, L. Pintschovius, W. Reimers, E. Schneider, B. Scholtes, and W.A. Theiner, Elsevier Health Sciences, 1997
Review: The authors of this book aimed to provide a comprehensive review of the non-destructive techniques for strain measurement and stress evaluation. They describe the underlying physical principles, instruments used, data acquisition approaches, and evaluation strategies for experimental methods including XRD, neutron diffraction, and ultrasonic and micromagnetic techniques. The largest part of the book is devoted to XRD stress analysis in which simple methods are inapplicable or lead to questionable results: i.e., where samples have texture, strong plastic deformation, or very steep stress gradients. The book contains valuable hints and recommendations and addresses many unsettled questions and difficult problems in this field. An excellent resource for an advanced understanding of XRD stress measurement results.
ASM International, 2002
Review: The editors of this book have addressed the contributing factors to steel deformation problems by examining material, machining, heating, and cooling effects. The handbook contains 27 articles divided into 5 sections: Effects of Materials and Processing, Measurement and Prediction of Residual Stress and Distortion, Residual Stress Formation and Shaping of Materials, Residual Stress During Hardening Processes, and Residual Stress Formation During Manufacturing Processes. The effects of residual stress on fatigue behavior, surface coatings, crack initiation and propagation, relaxation due to thermal mechanical treatment and cyclic deformation, and many others are presented. A great compilation of practical examples and case studies.
SEM, Fairmont Press, 1996
Review: The purpose of this book is to familiarize metallurgists, materials scientists, and design and manufacturing engineers with recent developments in residual stress measurement techniques and to help them determine which technique(s) are most appropriate for any given scenario. Twenty-four authors from six countries have contributed nine chapters, which discuss various measuring techniques: hole drilling, layer removal, sectioning, x-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, ultrasonic methods, and magnetic methods. This is a very comprehensive resource.
ASM International, 2002
Review: This volume examines the complex, varied, and sometimes unanticipated nature of failure and presents prevention strategies that are often multifaceted. This new edition contains over 50 new articles with expanded coverage on the 4 basic types of failure: deformation, fracture, corrosion, and wear. It describes a variety of tools and techniques (including x-ray diffraction) for effective planning, organization, implementation, and conclusion of a failure investigation through proper interpretation of information. A must-have for anyone involved in failure analysis!
ASTM International, 2002
Review: This is the North American standard for verifying x-ray diffraction goniometer alignment. A widely accepted standard.
ASTM International, 2003
Review: This is the North American standard for experimentally measuring the effective x-ray elastic parameter using x-ray diffraction techniques. A widely accepted standard.
Review: This reference was intended to bring together what the Society of Automotive Engineers Iron and Steel Technical Committee considered to be the most important aspects of x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement techniques. It places much importance on the theoretical aspects of x-ray diffraction, and provides guidance as to how these aspects may be applied to real measurements. A good basic reference that is easily understood and applied.
Review: This manual considers two aspects of the retained austenite problem: methods for its control and techniques for its measurement. Basic calculations and theory are presented. It also includes ideas on the origin of retained austenite and its measurements by x-ray diffraction, results of round robin studies, and techniques to use when dealing with texture or coarse grain size. A nice reference to have.
1. J. Nantais, J. Pineault, M. Belassel, M. Brauss, “Mapping Residual Stress Distributions in Advanced High Strength Steel Automotive Body Panels and Structural Components”, SAE 2013 World Congress and Exhibition, Detroit, MI, April 2013.
2. M. Belassel, J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Residual Stress Measurement in Nickel-Base Alloy Single Crystal Turbine Blades” 15th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (ICEM15), Porto, Portugal, 2012.
3. M. Belassel, J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Residual Stress Measurement using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques, Guidelines and Normative Standards” SAE 2012 World Congress and Exhibition, Detroit, Michigan, 2012.
4. M. Belassel, J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Measurement of the Elastic Behaviour of Single Crystal Materials Through a Thin Polycrystalline Layer Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques”, Elsevier Thin Films, 2012.
5. M.N. Srinivasan, D.E. Bray, M. Oruganti, J.A. Pineault, “Effect of Pressurized Hot Hydrogen on the Structure and Properties of AISI 4140 Steel”, Proceedings of the ICPIIT XII Conference, Houston, 2011.
6. C. Hubbard, J. Schmidlin, M. Klug, J. Pineault, S. Van De Car, Z. Feng, F. Ren and W. Zhang, “Dissimilar Metal Weld Residual Stress Mappings by Neutron and X-ray Diffraction and Incremental Hole Drilling Methods”, Proceedings of the 4th Residual Stress Summit, SEM, Oak Ridge, TN, 2010.
7. H.J.K. Lemmen, R.C. Alderliesten, R.R.G.M. Pieters, R. Benedictus, J.A. Pineault, “Local Yield Strength and Residual Stress measurements on Friction Stir Welded AA2024-T3, AA7075-T6 and AA6013-T4”, Journal of Aircraft, 2010.
8. M. Belassel, M.E. Brauss, J.A. Pineault, “Residual Stress Analysis Using X-Ray Diffraction – Quantitative Characterization of Peening Processes”, Shot Peening – A Dynamic Application and Its Future, Chapter 14, MFN, 2nd Edition, October 2009, pp. 178-196.
9. J.S. Ladouceur, J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Nondestructive Characterization of Residual Stresses on Cylinder Liners and Blocks via X-ray Diffraction Techniques”, SAE 2009 World Congress and Exhibition, Detroit, MI.
10. Y. Bombardier, M. Yanishevsky, Simon Hind, M. Duval, J. Eiblmeier, M. Brauss, J. Pineault, and D. Stargel, “Guidelines for the Application of Bonded Repairs to Structures Damaged by Stress Corrosion Cracking”, Proceedings for the RTO AVT-157 NATO Symposium on Ensured Military Platform Availability, Montreal, 2008.
11. O. Asi, A. Çetin Can, J.A. Pineault, M. Belassel, “The Effect of High Temperature Gas Carburizing on Bending Fatigue Strength of SAE 8620 Steel”, Materials and Design, Elsevier, 2008.
12. H.J.K. Lemmen, R.C. Alderliesten, R.R.G.M. Pieters, R. Benedictus, J. Pineault, “Influence of Local Yield Strength and Residual Stress on Fatigue in FSW”, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Chicago, 2008.
13. J.S. Ladouceur, J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Nondestructive Characterization of Residual Stresses in Small I.D. Through Holes via X-Ray Diffraction Techniques”, SAE 2008 World Congress and Exhibition, Detroit, MI.
14. M.E. Brauss, J.A. Pineault, M. Belassel and J.S. Ladouceur, “Characterizing Residual Stress Gradients in Automotive Components via X-Ray Diffraction Mapping Techniques”, Proceedings of MS&T '07/Heat Treat 2007 Conference & Exposition, ASM, Detroit, September 2007.
15. R.J. Drake, J.A. Pineault, M. Belassel, and M.E. Brauss, “The State of the Art and the Art of the Possible Using X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Measurement Technologies in Power Generation”, Proceedings of MS&T '07/Heat Treat 2007 Conference & Exposition, ASM, Detroit, September 2007.
16. M.E. Brauss, J.F. Porter, J.A. Pineault, M. Belassel, “The State of the Art and the Art of the Possible Using X-Ray Diffraction Technologies on Marine Platforms”, Proceedings of 2007 International Defence Applications of Materials Meeting, Halifax, 2007.
17. S.P. Farrell, L.W. MacGregor, C. Bayley, J.F. Porter, J.A. Pineault, Residual Stress on the Pressure Hull of the HMCS VICTORIA in Proximity to the Dent Repair”, Proceedings of 2007 International Defence Applications of Materials Meeting, Halifax, 2007.
18. K.M. Lynaugh, J.A. Pineault, M. Belassel, M.E. Brauss, “The Application of X-Ray Diffraction Techniques During the Fabrication and Introduction of the Bob Hope Class Support Vessel”, Proceedings of 2007 International Defence Applications of Materials Meeting, Halifax, 2007.
19. J.A. Pineault, M. Belassel, M.E. Brauss, J. Ladouceur, “Mapping Residual Stress Gradients in Automotive Components via X-Ray Diffraction”, SAE 2007 World Congress and Exhibition, Detroit, MI, April 2007.
20. O. Asi, A. Çetin Can, J.A. Pineault, M. Belassel, “The Relationship Between Case Depth and Bending Fatigue Strength of Gas Carburized SAE 8620 Steel”, Surface Coatings and Technology, 201, Elsevier, 2007, pp.5979-5987.
21. M. Belassel, J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Comparison and Evaluation of Residual Stress Measurement Techniques, A Technical and Economical Study”, SEM Proceedings, (2006).
22. M. Belassel, E. Bocher, J.A. Pineault, “Effect of Detector Width and Peak Location Technique on Residual Stress Determination in Case of Work-Hardened Materials”, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 524-525, (2006), pp.755-760.
23. M. Belassel, J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Review of Residual Stress Determination and Exploitation Techniques Using X-ray Diffraction Method”, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 524-525, (2006), pp.229-234.
24. M. Belassel, J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Residual Stress Measurement in Power Generation Structures”, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 524-525, (2006), pp.497-502.
25. J.A. Pineault, M. Belassel, M.E. Brauss, S.G. Berkley, “The Effect of Residual Stresses Produced by Machining Operations on Surface Properties of Nickel Base Alloys”, Proceedings of ECRS7, Berlin, Germany, September 2006.
26. M. Belassel, M.E. Brauss, J.A. Pineault, “Residual Stress Analysis Using X-Ray Diffraction – Quantitative Characterization of Peening Processes”, Shot Peening – A Dynamic Application and Its Future, Chapter 14, MFN, April 2006, pp 158-174.
27. J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, M. Belassel, R. Drake, “Residual Stress Measurements in Automotive Components via X-Ray Diffraction”, SAE 2006 World Congress and Exhibition, Detroit, MI, April 2006.
28. O.Asi, A.Ç.Can, J.Pineault, M.Belassel, “The relationship between case depth and bending fatigue strength of gas carburized SAE 8620 steel” Surf. Coat. Technol. Volume 201, Issue 12, (2007), pp-5979-5987
29. M.E. Brauss, J.A. Pineault, M. Yanishevsky, J. Eiblemeier, D. Stargel, “Developing Guidelines for Bonded Repair of Stress Corrosion Cracking and the Application of X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Mapping Technology to Aerospace Structures”, ASIP Conference Proceedings, Memphis, TN, November 2005.
30. J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, M. Belassel, R. Drake, “X-Ray Diffraction Technology: The Current State-of-the-Art for Measuring Residual Stress in Aerospace Structures”, ASIP Conference Proceedings, Memphis, TN, November 2005.
31. T. Dai, X. Chen, R. Drake, J. Yang, “Vision Sensor Based Tracking and Focusing of 3-D Singular Points”, ICMA 2005.
32. M. Belassel, J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Application of X-Ray Diffraction for Residual Stress Determination in Mechanical Components”, Proceedings of 2004 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and RD&D Expo, 14-17 November 2004, Anaheim California.
33. J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss and S.G. Berkley, “New XRD Technology can Eliminate Abusive Machining of Drilled Holes”, Metal Finishing News, Vol. 5, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2004, pp. 23-24.
34. K. Inal, J.L. Lebrun, M. Belassel, “Second Order Stresses and Strains in Heterogeneous Steels: Self-Consistent Modeling and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 35A August 2001, pp2361-2369.
35. M. Belassel, M.E. Brauss, S.G. Berkley, J.A. Pineault, “Effects of Residual Stress on the Fatigue Life Resistance of Ni-base Materials Operating Under High Loads”, Fatigue Damage of Materials – Experiment and Analysis, WIT Press, Southampton, Boston 2003, pp.125-135.
36. J.A. Pineault, R. J. Drake, M. Belassel, M.E. Brauss, “Nondestructive Characterization of Thin Films and Coatings Using X-ray Diffraction Techniques”, Proceedings of IFHTSE Conference, Columbus Ohio, October 2002.
37. J.A. Pineault, M. Belassel, M.E. Brauss, “X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Measurement in Failure Analysis”, ASM Handbook, Vol. 11, Failure Analysis and Prevention, Materials Park, Ohio, 2002. pp. 484-497
38. M. Belassel, M.E. Brauss, J.A. Pineault, S.G. Berkley, “Fatigue Damage Mechanism and Stress Relaxation in Shot Peened and Polished Nickel Base Materials”, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 404-407, (2002), pp.451-456
39. J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Quantitative Characterization of Peening Processes Using X-ray Diffraction Residual Stress Analysis”, Metal Finishing News, Vol. 3, Zurich, Switzerland, August 2002, pp. 4-6.
40. M. Belassel, M.E. Brauss and J.A. Pineault, "Residual Stress Characterization Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques, Applications on Welds" ASME Conference, 22-26 July 2001, Atlanta.
41. M. Belassel, M.E. Brauss and S.G. Berkley, "Residual Stress Relaxation in Nickel Base Alloys Subjected to Low Cycle Fatigue", Proceedings of ICRS6, Oxford, July 2000, pp.144-151.
42. M.E. Brauss, J.A. Pineault, J.F Porter, “Residual and Applied Stress Characterization of NiAl Bronze Using X-ray Diffraction”, Proceedings of 8th CF/CRAD Meeting on Naval Applications of Materials Technology, D.R.E.A, 1999.
43. J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Residual stress characterization of welds and post weld processing using x-ray diffraction techniques”, Proceedings of SPIE, Process Control and Sensors for Manufacturing, Vol. 3399, San Antonio, April 1998, pp. 196-204.
44. M.E. Brauss, J.A. Pineault, M. Belassel, S.I. Teodoropol, “Nondestructive, quantitative stress characterization of wire rope and steel cables, Proceedings of SPIE, Structural Materials Technology, Vol. 3400, San Antonio, 1998.
45. D.S. Kurtz, P.R. Moran, K.J. Kozaczek, M.E. Brauss, “Apparatus for Rapid Sin2 Stress Measurements and its Application to Titanium Alloy Jet Engine Fan Blades”, ICRS 5, Linkoping, Sweden, June 1997, pp. 744-749
46. M. Belassel, J.L. Lebrun, M. Kornmeier, “Micro Residual Stress Evolution During Elastic and Elastoplastic Fatigue Tests in Two-Phase Eutectoid Steel”, ICRS 5, Linkoping, Sweden, June 1997, pp. 1174-1178
47. M.E. Brauss et. al., “Deadload Stress Measurements on Brooklyn Bridge Wrought Iron Eye Bars and Truss Sections Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques - Proceedings of the 14th Annual Meeting of the International Bridge Conference”, Engineers’ Society of Western PA, 1997.
48. M. Belassel, J.L. Lebrun, H. Ruppersberg, “Triaxial elastoplastic stresses in the ferrite phase of pearlitic steel and their influence on the results obtained from X-ray stress analysis”, Proc. 4th European Conf. Residual Stresses, ECRS 4, Cluny en Bourgogne, 1996, pp.997-1002.
49. J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, J.S. Eckersley, “Residual Stress Characterization of Welds Using X-ray Diffraction Techniques”, AXCRI Proceedings, Ipoh, Malaysia, 1996, pp. 97-106.
50. M. G. Carfagno et. al., “X-ray Diffraction Measurement of Stresses in Post-Tensioning Tendons” Proceedings of SPIE, Nondestructive Evaluation of Bridges and Highways, Vol. 2946, Scottsdale, Arizona, 1996.
51. M.E. Brauss, G.V. Gorveatte, J.F. Porter, “Development of a Miniature X-ray Diffraction Based Stress Analysis System Suitable for Use on Marine Structures”, Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials and Composites – SPIE, Volume 2944, 1996.
52. J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, J.S. Eckersley, “Residual Stress Characterization of Welds Using X-ray Diffraction Techniques”, Proceedings from AWS Convention, Welding Mechanics and Design, Chicago, 1996.
53. J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Stress Measurements In The Field On A Natural Gas Pipeline Via X-ray Diffraction”, NDE-No.13, NDE For The Energy Industry, ASME, 1995.
54. M.E. Brauss and J.A. Pineault, “Residential Strain Measurements of Steel Structures”, NDE-Nol. 13, NDE For The Energy Industry, ASME, 1995.
55. M.G. Carfagno et. al., “X-ray Diffraction Measurement of Stresses in Post-Tensioning Tendons - Extending the Lifespan of Structures”, IABSE, Zurich, Switzerland, 1995.
56. J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Stress Mapping- A New Way of Tackling the Characterization of Residual Stress”, Experimental Techniques, SEM, March 1995.
57. M.E. Brauss, J.A. Pineault, M.J. Vinarcik, “Characterizing Residual Stresses Induced By Rolling in Crankshaft Fillets Using X-ray Diffraction”, Proceedings of SEM Spring Conference, SEM, 1995.
58. J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Insitu Measurements of Residual and Applied Stresses in Pressure Vessels and Pipelines Using X-ray Diffraction”, PVP-Vol. 276, Determining Material Characterization, ASME, 1994.
59. J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Automated Stress Mapping – A New Tool For The Characterization of Residual Stress and Stress Gradients”, Proceedings of ICRS 4, SEM, Baltimore, 1994, pp. 40-44.
60. T.M Holden, J.H. Fox, A.P. Clarke, J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Diffraction Measurements of Line width in Plastically Deformed and Fatigued HY-80 Materials”, AECL, ANDI 94, Chalk River, 1994.
61. J.L. Lebrun,P. Gergaud, V. Ji, M.Belassel,”Interests of Synchrotron Radiation for Internal Stress Analysis”, Journal de physique IV, vol.4 (1994) p.265.
62. M.Belassel,J.L. Lebrun, J.P. Bettembourg, “ Effect of Low Cycle Fatigue on Residual Stresses Evolution in an Eutectoid Steel; Study of the Bauschinger Effect by X-ray Diffraction”, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Residual Stresses, ICRS 4. Soc. Exp. Mechanics, 1994, pp.844-853.
63. M. Belassel, J.L. Lebrun, S. Denis, E. Gautier, J.P. Bettembourg, “Effect of Thermal and Mechanical Loading on the Generation of Macro and Micro Stresses in Eutectoid Steel”, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Residual Stresses, ICRS 4. Soc. Exp. Mechanics, 1994, 392-401.
64. M. Belassel, V. Ji, J.L. Lebrun, P. Gergaud, M. François and M. Bessière, “Analysis of the Mechanical Behaviour of Material Through 2nd and 3rd Order Stress Determination” Journal de physique IV, vol.4 (1994) p.261.
65. J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, J.F. Porter, “Characterization of Plastic Strain in HY-80 Using X-ray Diffraction Techniques”, Proceedings of the Conference on Naval Applications of Material Technology, D.R.E.A., Halifax, 1993.
66. M. Belassel, J.L.Lebrun, J.P. Bettembourg, Influence of the Cementite Morphology on the 2nd and 3rd Order Mechanical Residual Stresses Determined by X-Ray Diffraction in Pearlitic Steel. In: Residual Stresses (Eds: V. Hauk, H.P. Hougardy, E. Macherauch, H.-D. Tietz). DGM Informationsgesellschaft Verlag, Oberursel, 1993, 779-790.
67. J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, "Measuring Residual Stress Using X-ray Diffraction on Shot Peened Components", MAT-TEC, France, 1993.
68. J.A. Pineault, M.E. Brauss, “Measuring Residual and Applied Stress Using X-ray Diffraction on Materials With Preferred Orientation and Large Grain Size”, Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol. 36, New York 1993.
69. D. Moorehouse, J.F. Porter. M.E. Brauss, “An Investigation Into The Failure of Turbo Blower Rotor Shafts”, Proceedings of the 45th Meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group, Annapolis, 1991, pp. 337-346.
70. J.M. Boag, M.E. Brauss, “X-ray Diffractometer Stress Measurements for Power Plant Field Applications”, OHRD Report, 1987. 71. R.A Holt, M.E. Brauss, J.M Boag, “Insitu Stress Measurement with CANMET Portable X-ray Stress Diffractometer, “Presented at 2nd International Symposium on NDE Characterization of Materials, Montreal, 1986