X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Elements of X-Ray Diffraction, (3rd edition)

B. D. Cullity, et al, Prentice Hall, 2001

Review: The purpose of this book is to acquaint the reader who has no previous knowledge of x-ray diffraction theory and is intended for students, not advanced research work. It is the standard undergraduate text used at many universities. It should be useful for engineers, metallurgists, chemists, physicists etc. namely, all who use x-ray diffraction as an analysis tool. The book is divided into three main parts: fundamentals, experimental methods and applications, and includes a section on the measurement of residual stress. It also includes many useful tables and appendices. Highly recommended for the beginner!

B. E. Warren, Addison Wesley, 1969

Review: The material presented in this book is an outgrowth of a series of lectures given to graduate students in physics and metallurgy at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The emphasis is on a rigorous development of basic diffraction theory. The treatment is carried far enough to relate to experimentally observable quantities. The main part of the book is devoted to the application of x-ray diffraction methods to nonstructural problems such as temperature vibration effects, order-disorder, crystal imperfections, the structure of amorphous materials and the diffraction of perfect crystals. Experimental apparatus and procedures, low angle scattering, stress analysis and texture have been omitted. A robust theoretical reference.

X-Ray Diffraction Procedures for Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials, (2nd Edition)

H.P. Klug and L.E. Alexander

Wiley-Interscience, 1974

Review: This book is an outgrowth of more than twenty-five years of industrial consulting, research and graduate teaching in the field of x-ray diffraction to a wide variety of researches and problems of the eighty Industrial Fellowships at Mellon Institute. The authors' desire was to err on the side of too much detail, rather than too little, in presenting the most basic techniques, procedures and applications thus, simple steps in mathematical derivations are always included. The book assumes no special knowledge of crystallography and x-rays on the part of the reader. Simple as well as more advanced examples are used to illustrate concepts and procedures. A particularly desirable reference.

Elements of Modern X-Ray Physics

Jens Als-Nielsen, Des McMorrow, John Wiley & Sons, 2001

Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffractometry

by Ron Jenkins, Robert L. Synder, Wiley-Interscience, 1996

Introduction to Crystallography

Donald E. Sands, Dover Classics of Science and Mathematics, Reprint Edition 1994

X-Ray Diffraction: In Crystals, Imperfect Crystals, and Amorphous Bodies

Andre Guinier, Dover, 1994

Structure of Metals - Crystallographic Methods, Principles and Data, (3rd Revised Edition), International Series on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 35, C. Barrett and T. B. Massalski, Pergamon Press, 1980

Review: The book presents the methods most used in determining structures and defects in crystalline and noncrystalline materials, introduces the standard nomenclature used and summarizes the nature and theories describing the most important structures. Transformations from one crystal structure to another are also treated. It is intended to be used as a convenient reference volume to serve metallurgists, materials scientists, chemists and physicists at both the graduate and undergraduate level. Included are the fundamentals of crystal lattices and symmetry, the reciprocal lattice and diffraction, experimental methods and some results of research. A very useful reference.

Handbook of Lattice Spacings and Structures of Metals

(International Series of Monographs on Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy)

W.B. Pearson, Franklin Book Co., 1964

RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENT

Residual Stress: Measurement by Diffraction and Interpretation

I.C. Noyan and J.B. Cohen, Springer-Verlag, 1987

Review: This book is intended to give the reader a firm foundation in the theory of residual stress measurement with diffraction, as well as a comprehensive understanding of the experimental concepts involved in carrying out such a measurement. It is written for engineers, scientists and students in a discipline that requires experimental nondestructive stress analysis and covers elasticity/plasticity, the separation of macro and micro residual stress, experimental measurement techniques and errors. A must have for the diffraction experimentalist!

Structural and Residual Stress Analysis by Nondestructive Methods

V. Hauk, H. Behnken, W. Reimers, W. Pfeiffer, Ch. Genzel, et al

Elsevier Health Sciences, 1997, Hardcover

Review: The author of this book aimed at a comprehensive review of the nondestructive techniques for strain measurement and stress evaluation. The underlying physical principals, instruments used, data acquisition and evaluation strategies for experimental methods including x-ray and neutron diffraction, ultrasonic and micromagnetic techniques are described. The largest part of the book is devoted to x-ray diffraction stress analysis where simple methods are inapplicable or lead to questionable results i.e. where samples exhibit texture, strong plastic deformation or very steep stress gradients. The book contains valuable hints and recommendations and addresses many unsettled questions and difficult problems in this field. An excellent resource for the advanced understanding of x-ray diffraction stress measurement results.

Handbook of Residual Stress and Deformation in Steel

ASM International, 2002

Review: The editors of this book have addressed the contributing factors to overall steel deformation problems by examining material, machining, heating and cooling effects. The handbook contains twenty-seven articles divided into five sections including: Effects of Materials and Processing, Measurement and Prediction of Residual Stress and Distortion, Residual Stress Formation and Shaping of Materials, Residual Stress During Hardening Processes, and Residual Stress Formation During Manufacturing Processes. The effects of residual stress on fatigue behavior, surface coatings, crack initiation and propagation, relaxation due to thermal mechanical treatment and cyclic deformation, and many others are presented. A great compilation of practical examples and case studies!

SEM Handbook of Measurement of Residual Stress

SEM, Fairmont Press, 1996

Review: The purpose of this book is to familiarize metallurgists, materials scientists, design and manufacturing engineers with recent developments in residual stress measurement techniques and to help them determine which residual stress measurement technique(s) are most appropriate for any given scenario. Twenty-four authors from six countries have contributed nine chapters which include various measuring techniques: hole drilling, layer removal, sectioning, x-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, ultrasonic and magnetic methods. This is a very comprehensive resource

ASM Handbook, Volume 11: Failure Analysis and Prevention

ASM International, 2002

Review: This volume examines the complex, varied and sometimes unanticipated nature of failures and presents prevention strategies that are often multifaceted. This new edition contains over 50 new articles with expanded coverage on the four basic types of failure: deformation, fracture, corrosion and wear. It describes a variety of tools (including x-ray diffraction) and techniques for effective planning, organization, implementation, and reliable conclusion of a failure investigation through proper interpretation of information. A must have for anyone involved in failure analysis!

MEASUREMENT STANDARDS

ASTM International, 2002

Review: This is the North American standard for verifying x-ray diffraction goniometer alignment. A widely accepted standard.

ASTM International, 2003

Review: This is the North American standard for experimentally measuring the effective x-ray elastic parameter using x-ray diffraction techniques. A widely accepted standard.

SAE HS784, Residual Stress Measurement by X-ray Diffraction

SAE, 1971

Review: This reference was intended to bring together what the Society of Automotive Engineers Iron and Steel Technical Committee considered to be the most important aspects of x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement techniques. It places much importance on the theoretical aspects of x-ray diffraction, and provides guidance as to how these aspects may be applied to real measurements. A good basic reference that is easily understood and applied.

SAE SP-453, Retained Austenite and Its Measurement by X-Ray Diffraction

SAE, 1980

Review: This manual concerns itself with two aspects of the retained austenite problem, methods for its control and techniques for its measurement. Basic calculations and theory are presented. It also includes ideas on the origin of retained austenite and its measurements by x-ray diffraction, results of round robin studies and techniques to use when texture or coarse grain size exists. A nice reference to have.

Applications